Basalt is a volcanic igneous rock formed by the rapid cooling of lava.With a name derived from Latin for "very hard stone," basalt is actually an extremely hard black igneous rock found throughout the Earth and our solar system. It can be found not only on Earth, but also on the Earth's moon and Mars. It is a volcanic igneous rock, formed from lava that cools rapidly at the Earth's surface. It is generally black in color due to the high amounts of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide, and very low amounts of the light-colored silicate minerals. It has many industrial applications, including as building materials and heat insulators.
- Basalt is mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO) and calcium oxide (CaO). They are very low in silicon (SiO2) usually less than 50 percent. It also contains some iron oxide (FeO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). As a result they are very dark in color usually appearing as shades of black and green. Occasionally some red or orange colors can appear in basalt and are due to that particular basalt which contains rusting iron compounds. Basalt is an igneous rock formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma. Magma usually consists of melting rocks of dark color peridotite and rocks rich in pyroxene. Some light-colored basalts are found which form when basaltic magma contains a higher than normal amount of calcium or sodium minerals.
- Basalt is mainly used for structural building materials such as bricks /tiles/ foundations and sculptures as well as within stonewalls for thermal purposes and rail tracks.